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Full text of "Your North Carolina Symphony Book"


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NORTH CAROLINA 
SYMPHONY 

Teacher Handbook 
2000-2001 

Table of Contents 

Preface ii 

The Magic Flute Overture, K. 620 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) 

Information and activities by Anne Moorman-Smith and Ruth Pardue 1 



Symphony # 2 in C minor, Movement 4, "Finale" 
Piotr Ilyitch Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) 

Information and activities by Judy McCarson 13 



Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria von Weber 

Movement 1, Allegro and 4, Marsch 

Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) 

Information and activities by Amy Cheyne and Carolyn Lemmond 40 

The North Carolina Symphony Teacher Handbook © 2000 by the North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. 
Reproduction of this book in its entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate charts, diagrams, scores, 
puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

The North Carolina Symphony education concerts are made possible by a grant-in-aid from the State of North Carolina. 
This program is supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment of the Arts. We gratefully acknowledge 
Glaxo Wellcome, Inc., who has made a generous grant to fund conductors for music education concerts and CP&L for 
their grant in support of the Symphony's statewide education mission. A special thank you to Maxine Swalin for her 
gift to underwrite the cost of education materials. This gift is given in memory of her husband, Music Director and 
Conductor Benjamin Swalin, and in honor of Jackson Parkhurst, Music Education Consultant and former Assistant 
Conductor and Director of Education. 



W 



The North Carolina Symphony 
Suzanne Rousso, Director of Education 

2 East South Street 

Raleigh, NC 27601 

919-733-2750 x235 national 

srousso(a)ncsymphonv.org endowment 

www.ncsymphony.org F0R THE ARTS 



Preface 

Welcome to a new year of new music! We have put together a wonderful, varied 
program for our elementary students to hear and learn about; I'm positive you will find it fun and 
stimulating to teach. The teacher's handbook is an invaluable source of information that will aid 
you in teaching this year's pieces: Mozart's Magic Flute Overture; Tchaikovsky's Symphony #2, 
movement 4; and Paul Hindemith's Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria von 
Weber, movements 1 and 4. The writers of the handbook are your colleagues, from Wilmington, 
Raleigh and Durham, who have provided information and activities to inform and delight students 
of all ages. We leave it to individual teachers to decide what to use in preparing your classes for 
the symphony concert; you may use as much or as little of it as you wish. 

The songs this year are the Ukrainian folk song "The Crane" and the African- 
American Spiritual, "Follow the Drinkin' Gourd". "The Crane" is the same folk song 
Tchaikovsky used in his 2 nd Symphony, which will be performed in this year's concert. It 
was a challenge to first, find the song itself, and then to translate it from Ukrainian to a G- 
rated English version; the original was a little too violent for 4 th graders! Many thanks to 
Jack Parkhurst for his help with this song. "Follow the Drinkin' Gourd" is a song suggested 
by several Wake County teachers... their input is sincerely appreciated. The songs should be 
memorized for singing at the concert. It is difficult for children to read the words in the 
student book while they sing; so it is much more fun if they learn the words in advance. If 
you do not have time to teach them or do not want to teach them, let the conductor know, at 
the concert, to leave them out. However, it needs to be a system-wide decision; we do not 
want to do the songs when only part of the audience knows them. 

I would like to give you some information about our new assistant conductor, 
Jeffrey Pollock, who will conduct many of this year's education concerts. Jeff will start in 
September; he joins us from Oklahoma State University where he was music director of the 
university symphony orchestra. Prior to working in Oklahoma, he lived in Baltimore where 
he worked as assistant conductor, chorus master and rehearsal pianist with the Baltimore 
Opera Company, Opera Delaware, Summer Opera Theatre and the Annapolis Opera. His 
first conducting experiences were in San Francisco with the Amphion Ensemble, an 
orchestra of which he was both founder and music director. Jeff is a lively young man, a 
wonderful musician and I know he is looking forward to presenting great classical, 
orchestral music to our children. 

Remember, I depend on your feedback and suggestions for making decisions about 
repertoire.... please, feel free to e-mail or snail-mail me with any comments (all that info is 
on page i). I will read anything you send and take it into consideration, positive or negative. 
Music can make such a difference in our lives, teaching it to our children is a labor of love, 
thank vou all! 



Suzanne Rousso, June 2000 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

Copies of educational materials, publications and CD's can be ordered from the Symphony 
office. Please contact: Sue Guenther, 919-733-2750 x230 sguenther(o)ncsvmphonv.org , or 
check out our website at wvvvv.ncsymphony.org. 



OVERTURE TO THE MA GIC FL UTE Classroom Activities 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Anne Moorman-Smith and Ruth Pardue 

Lesson Ideas 

1. Have a brief discussion about Mozart challenging students to actively listen for 
facts in chronological order. 

A. Read a children's picture book about the life of Mozart (see Bibliography for more 
details on the books). 

• The Magic of Mozart by Ellen Switzer 

• Mozart (Famous Children Series) by Ann Rachlin 

• Young Mozart by Rachel Isadora 

• Wolferl: The First Six Years In The Life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1762 
by Lisl Weil 

• Mozart Tonight by Julie Downing 

B. Help students develop a list of fun facts as a result of their active listening to the 
stories (use webbing, outline, chart, etc.). Supplement with the following 
interesting chronological tidbits about him. 

Birth: 

• Mozart was born in 1756 in Salzburg, Austria to Leopold and Anna Maria 
Mozart. 

• His older sister, Nannerl, was his only surviving sibling out of seven children. 

• He was called "Wolferl", or "Wolfie", by his family and friends. 

Three: 

• At age three Mozart closely watched his sister taking lessons on the clavier, 
and would sit still and listen to music being played for long periods of time. 

• One of Mozart's favorite companions was a pet canary. 

Four: 

• Mozart began performing in home concerts. 

Five: 

• At age five he could play the clavier and violin. He could also play several 
other instruments on which he had NOT taken lessons. 

• He was writing delightful tunes at this time. 

Six: 

• Leopold became convinced his son was a prodigy or "wunderkind" when his 
son amazed him by playing a piece on the violin that Wolfie had heard his 
father and friends rehearsing. He soon became know as "Mozart the 
Wonderboy". 



• At age six his father, Leopold, discovered "Wolfie" covered in inkblots. 
When Leopold asked what he was doing, "Wolfie" replied that he was 
writing a concerto. At this point young Mozart started begging his father for 
clavier lessons and Leopold agreed. When he saw the quality of his son's 
composition, he granted the request. 

• At age six the family (usually without their mother) began traveling to major 
European cities giving performances. (They would tie the clavier to the top of 
the carriage!) 

Eight: 

• At age eight he composed his first opera. (Sources disagree on this fact. Some 
say he was eleven or twelve.) 

• As a young boy he played for the Emperor in Vienna who covered the keys of 
the clavier with a black cloth and challenged him to play his piece. Mozart 
played it perfectly. 

• He was known as the "most kissed little boy in Europe , \ 

• Because of his great talent he never went to school. He was home-schooled by 
his father. (He loved arithmetic!) 

• Mozart loved animals. He would send his dog, Bimperl postcards from around 
Europe. He once left in the middle of a concert to chase after a cat that had 
wandered in. He had various dogs, birds and even a pet grasshopper! 

Teenage Years: 

• At sixteen or seventeen he began having trouble getting attention as he was no 
longer a cute little boy, although his brilliance was evident in his 
compositions. 

Adult: 

• As a child he had rosy cheeks, but as an adult, he had yellowish skin with 
smallpox scars. His head was too large for his body. 

• Wolfgang married Constanze Weber at the age of twenty-six and had six 
children, only two of whom survived into adulthood. (Constanze was a 
careless housekeeper and not particularly attractive!) 

• He got by on as little as four hours of sleep a night. Doctors told him he 
needed more exercise, which may be why he bought a pool table. 

• He wrote more music, more quickly, than almost any composer in history 
(700 + works). He wrote symphonies, concertos, sonatas, masses and operas. 
He also composed for several unusual instruments - the music box, the 
musical clock, the barrel organ and Ben Franklin's "glass harmonica". 

• More recordings of Mozart's music are purchased each year than of any other 
composer. 

• He learned to speak 15 languages! 

• Mozart was never healthy as an adult. He died of kidney failure and 
malnutrition at age 35, in 1 791 . He was buried in an unmarked grave. 

• He is considered by many to be the greatest composer in history. 



C. Have students read the information in the student booklets about Mozart and the 
Overture. Play the game, "Who wants to be a Millionaire?" Students may use 
"lifelines" by polling the class, asking a friend or 50/50. If they answer the 
question without a lifeline, they receive more points! Questions can come from 
the student-generated facts or student handbook. 

2. Have a brief discussion about the The Magic Flute. 

• What is an opera? [A theatrical production that is sung. Opera came from 
Florence, Italy over 400 years ago. Its roots are in ancient Greek theater.] 

• What is an overture? [A musical introduction to a opera, ballet or musical play] 

• Give a brief overview of The Magic Flute. 

Background of The Magic Flute: 

Two months before his death in 1791 Mozart wrote The Magic Flute. The librettist 
for The Magic Flute was Mozart's old friend, Emmanuel Schikaneder, an actor, 
singer, writer, producer and theater manager. Mozart and Schikaneder were both 
Freemasons, as were many of their friends. There are many Masonic symbols in The 
Magic Flute. For example, the number three is used frequently such as three chords in 
a knocking rhythm, Eb Major is in the key of 3 flats, there are three spirits, and there 
are three ladies. Characters in the opera engage in rituals that are identical to Masonic 
traditions. 

This is an opera that is very appealing to young audiences because of its fairy-tale 
qualities. There are imaginary characters such as a prince, princess, a bird catcher 
who is half man and half bird, and an evil queen. Mozart also uses magical bells and 
of course, a magical flute in the story. One of the challenges in teaching this opera is 
that the plot is rather complicated. 

Chararacters in The Magic Flute 

Prince Tamino 

Princess Pamina 

Queen of the Night - mother of the Princess 

Sarastro - Lord of the Temple 

Papageno - birdcatcher - half man, half bird 

Papagena - birdcatcher - half woman, half bird 

Three Ladies - ladies in waiting to the Queen of the Night 

Three Spirits - three young boys sent to protect Papageno and Tamino 

Monostatos - Sarastro's guard 

Synopsis of The Magic Flute: 

Once upon a time Prince Tamino was hunting in an unknown forest when he 
encountered a horrible serpent. After trying to escape from the serpent he fell 
exhausted and fainted. At that moment, three veiled mysterious ladies appeared and 
magically slew the serpent. Noticing how handsome the young man was, they decided 
to tell the Queen of the Night about him. The ladies vanished. 



When the Prince awoke, he saw a very strange fellow dressed in feathers playing a 
merry song on his panpipes. As they talked, he discovered this fellow was Papageno, 
the bird catcher for the Queen of the Night and her ladies. Tamino realized the serpent 
was dead and gratefully thanked Papageno for saving his life! When Papageno was 
quick to accept the credit for this deed, the three ladies reappeared to scold him for 
lying and placed a padlock on his mouth. They explained they had been the ones who 
killed the serpent. 

The three ladies showed Tamino a locket with a picture of a beautiful young girl 
(Princess Pamina). They explained that the wicked Sarastro had abducted her and was 
keeping her hostage in his castle. Tamino immediately fell in love with the Princess 
and vowed to rescue her. They told the Prince that Sarastro lived in a heavily guarded 
castle in a sunny valley near the mountains. Suddenly there was darkness and thunder 
and the Queen of the Night appeared before the Prince. She told him that if he saved 
the Princess, she would be his forever! She vanished as quickly as she had appeared. 

The three ladies showed compassion to Papageno by removing his padlock, but 
ordered him to help the Prince find Pamina. Then they gave the Prince a magical 
golden flute, gave Papageno some magical bells, and told them that three spirits 
would protect and guide them to Sarastro's castle. When they arrived at the castle 
Papageno saw a beautiful girl but was startled by a man in a purple turban called 
Monostatos who was Pamina' s cruel guard. Monostatos was equally frightened at the 
sight of Papageno. 

Papageno explained to Pamina that her mother, the Queen of the Night, had sent a 
Prince to rescue her and that he was already in love with her. When she heard how 
brave the Prince was, she immediately fell in love with him! Sad Papageno wished 
that he had someone to love also. He grabbed her hand and they fled before 
Monostatos returned. 

Meanwhile the spirits led Tamino before a temple with three doors. An ancient priest 
appeared in the central doorway. Tamino discovered from the priest that Sarastro was 
actually protecting Pamina from the influence of her wicked mother. Tamino was 
overcome with joy and played his magic flute for the beasts of the forest. 

Tamino heard Papageno' s pipes in the distance and blew a trill in response. He began 
to search for him hoping that Pamina had already been discovered. Unfortunately, 
Monostatos was also in the woods searching for the run-aways with a group of slaves. 
When he discovered Pamina and Papageno, he ordered they be put in chains. 
Papageno remembered to use his magic bells, which cast a spell on the slaves and 
they began to sing and dance. 

Sarastro appeared and forgave Pamina for running away, but commanded that she not 
return to her wicked mother. He declared the Queen of the Night was dark and 
deceitful and would ruin Pamina's happiness. Monostatos rushed in dragging Pamina 
with him. The two young lovers saw each other for the first time and embraced in joy. 



Sarastro immediately separated them telling Tamino that he must undergo extensive 
trials to prove himself worthy to be part of the brotherhood of the Temple. Only then 
could he win Pamina. The Prince agreed to undergo the trials to win the heart of the 
Princess. 

Sarastro fired Monostatos and his slaves for their unkindness toward the Princess. 
Feeling resentful, Monostatos crept into the Temple gardens where Pamina was 
sleeping. Suddenly a clap of thunder frightened him and the Queen of the Night 
appeared. She ordered him to leave. Pamina woke at the sound of her voice. The 
Queen asked her daughter where the Prince was that she had sent to rescue her. 
Pamina said that Tamino also was a follower of Sarastro. The Queen gave her a 
dagger and ordered her to kill Sarastro and then disappeared. Horrified at this request, 
the Princess fled toward the sound of the magic flute. When she discovered the 
Prince, he could not speak to her, as his first trial was a vow of silence. She went 
away weeping. 

Poor Papagano was unhappy too. He was longing to find his little Papagena. To 
comfort himself, he played on his magic bells. Suddenly an old woman appeared 
carrying a goblet. After drinking from it, he asked her how old she was. She answered 
"eighteen years and two minutes" but he assumed she said " eighty years and two 
minutes." When she explained that she was truly only eighteen years and two 
minutes, he asked if she had a sweetheart and she answered yes, that his name was 
Papagano! She asked him to marry her or be imprisoned forever. He reluctantly gave 
his hand, but at his touch, she turned into a young girl birdcatcher dressed in feathers 
just like himself. She flew into the darkness and he followed. 

Pamino was in despair because both her mother and the Prince had left her, so she 
raised the dagger to kill herself. Suddenly the three spirits appeared and promised her 
that Tamino still loved her, and that love would protect her and overcome all danger. 
They led her to the Prince where she joined him in the trials that lay before him. 
By playing the magic flute, the two lovers were able to survive the trials of passing 
through fire and a dreadful waterfall. After conquering the trials, they were allowed to 
enter the Temple's doors. 

Papagano wandered in despair calling out for his lost Papagana. He considered killing 
himself, but the three spirits intervened and told him to sound his magic bells. He had 
forgotten about the bells, and when he played them, his dear Papagana came running 
to meet him. Together they sang the famous "Pa-pa-pa-pa-pa- Pagagena!" "Pa-pa-pa- 
pa-pa- Pagageno!"song. 

Meanwhile, Monostatos beckoned the Queen of the Night and her ladies up the great 
staircase in a desperate attempt to defeat Sarastro. But light streamed through the 
doorway above revealing Sarastro. Thunder and lightening split the sky and the 
Queen's power was broken. Dark clouds surrounded her and her companions and 
they disappeared forever, defeated by the power of light! 
[Taken from The Magic Flute, The Story of Mozart 's Opera by Francesca Crespi] 



• Listen to the cassette tape "Mozart's Magic Fantasy": 
A journey through The Magic Flute ISBN 1-895404-04-5 
This is an excellent presentation that simplifies the story and makes it real to the 
children. It is part of the outstanding "Classical Kids" Series, although it will 
probably take two class periods to complete the entire tape. 

Overture to The Magic Flute : Call Chart 
Adagio 

This brief 15-measure introduction to The Magic Flute opens with three stately chords 
(full orchestra) followed by extended rests. The remaining bars are primarily soft 
passages accented often by sfp. 

Allegro 

1:30 Primary theme (1 st violins) 

1:36 Primary theme (2 n violins) 

1 :42 Secondary theme 

1 :47 Primary theme (cello,viola and bassoon) 

1 :56 Primary theme (bass, cello and bassoon) 

2:06 Primary theme (full orchestra) 

2:10 Secondary theme 

2:12 Bridge/transition section using fragments from the 2 nd theme 

2:30 Development section with primary theme motif (minor key) 

2:38 Flute countermelody with strings on main theme 

2:47 Oboe and flute in dialogue 

2:54 Primary and secondary theme fragments woven together (full orchestra) 

2:56 Development section with secondary theme motif 

3:05 Oboe and flute in dialogue 

3:10 Primary and secondary theme fragments woven together (full orchestra) 

3:21 Codetta: crescendo, ending with fermata over a whole note 

Adagio 

3:47 The Allegro is interrupted by the three solemn chords of the introduction. Again, 
extended rests follow three chords. These chords are presumed to have Masonic 

significance. 

Allegro 

4:20 Primary Theme (1 st violin) (minor key) 

4:30 Primary Theme (bass, cello and bassoon) 

4:35 Secondary Theme B (bassoon followed by oboe then flute) 

4:43 Primary Theme motif developed (bassoon, viola, cello and bass) 

5:00 Full orchestra rest 

5:02 Primary Theme motif 

5:06 Primary theme (strings) alternating with flute and bassoon counter melody 

5:29 Primary Theme returns in original key (Eb) 

5:33 Primary and Secondary themes developed 



5 :45 Recapitulation of Primary Theme 

5:50 Recapitulation of Secondary Theme 

6:28 Primary Theme fragments with clarinet counter melody 

6:30 Clarinet, bassoon and flute in dialogue 

6:39 Primary theme (oboe) with flute countermelody 

7:09 Coda Begins: Primary Theme (full orchestra) crescendo to end 

3. Listen to the Overture to The Magic Flute. 

• Define adagio and allegro. 

• Explain that students will hear 4 main sections: adagio, allegro, adagio, allegro. 

• Play the melody of the primary theme and teach accompanying words. (Note: the 
rhythm has been simplified due to the rapid tempo of the allegro sections.) 

• Have children close their eyes and raise their hands each time they hear the 
primary theme. (This will be in the allegro sections.) 

• Have the students listen and complete a sheet with the following "describing 
words" Words include tempo, meter, mood, instrumentation, dynamics, tonality. 

4. Experience the primary theme through rhythm and melody. 



Primary Theme 




Secondary Theme 




Speak the primary theme using rhythm syllables (note: SLOW THE TEMPO 
DOWN so children will be successful.) Use rhythm sticks to play the rhythm on 
the floor or on paper plates while teacher plays the adapted accompaniment (see 
"Piano Lead Sheet" below.) 
Suggested syllables: 



J> J> J> J> J> J> Ah Ah J> J> J> J> J> J> Ah Ah 

ti ti ti ti ti ti ti-bi ti-bi ti ti ti ti ti ti ti-bi ti-bi 



Learn simplified melody and orchestration that outline the primary theme. 



Simple Student Orchestration of the Primary Theme 



Vocal 



Simplified 
primary theme for 
barred instruments 



Bass xylophone 
or bass bars 



— # * — 

Here's the main theme 



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Piano "Lead Sheet" to Accompany Student Orchestration 
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• Use rhythm score (located in the back of the Mozart section ) along with first 
allegro section, (begins at 1:30) 

Integration Activities: 

Visual and Language Arts: Students should design an advertisement for Mozart's 
Magic Flute using artwork and text. The finished product could be a poster, flier, 
magazine or newspaper ad. This could be done effectively in pairs or in small groups. 
Have some examples different types of ads to show to the students and brainstorm with 
some of the important information that would need to be included. 

Social Studies and Language Arts: In an encyclopedia, other reference book or the 
Internet, have students look up the years of Mozart's life (1756-1791) and create a time- 
line of important events that occurred in the United States (and world) during that time. 
This would be another opportunity for cooperative grouping. 

Math and Language Arts: Students will write several sentences about Mozart or the 
Overture to the Magic Flute. Then they will develop a number code assigning a number 
to each letter of the alphabet. The coded sentences should be passed to another student or 
group of students to solve. Be sure that each coded message has the answer written on a 
separate sheet for the students to check. 



Vocabulary Words: 

opera - a theatrical production that is sung. Opera came from Florence, Italy over 400 

years ago. Its roots are in ancient Greek theater. 
overture - a musical introduction to an opera, ballet or musical play. 
adagio - a slow tempo or the name given to a slow movement 
allegro - a rapid tempo though not as fast as presto; also the name given to a fast 

movement 
primary theme - "Theme" is a melody in an instrumental piece that is repeated. 

"Primary theme" is the main theme that is heard throughout the composition. 
dynamics - the "loudness" or "softness" of music 
crescendo - gradually increasing the volume 
decrescendo - gradually decreasing the volume 
libretto - the text of an opera 
librettist - the writer of the text of an opera 
staccato - in a crisp detached manner 

clavier - the keyboard of pianoforte and organ. Germans call the piano "clavier" or" 
klavier" 

Interesting Web Sites 

http://www.frontiernet.net/~sboerner/mozart 

The Mozart Project: The life, times and music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 
This is a great site of a comprehensive treatment of Mozart's life and works, essays, 
bibliography and links to other sites on Mozart. Very good! 

http://www.geocities.com/vienna/strasse/2914/mozart 

The Mozart Experience: This site is especially interesting because it has a link to letters 
actually written by Mozart! (In one of these letters, Mozart is trying to convince his father 
that Contanze is a suitable bride!) There are also wonderful pictures of Mozart as a child, 
adolescent and adult. 



Bibliography 

Crespi, Francesca. The Magic Flute: The Story of Mozart's Opera. New York, New 

York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc. 1989. 
Downing, Julie. Mozart Tonight New York, New York: Aladdin Books, 1991. 
Isadora, Rachel Young Mozart New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1997. 
Krull, Kathleen Lives of the Musicians Good Times, Bad Times: {And What the 

Neighbors Thought). Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1993. 
The Music Connection: 5 th Grade Atlanta, Georgia: Silver Burdett Ginn, 1995. 
Rachlin, Ann. Famous Children: Mozart. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational 

Series, Inc. 1992. 
Switzer, Ellen. The Magic of Mozart. New York, New York: Atheneum Books for 

Young Readers, 1995. 
Thompson, Wendy. Mozart: A Bicentennial Tribute Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell 



Books. 1989. 
Weil, Lisl. Wolferl: The First Six Years in the Life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756- 
1 ~62. New York, New York: Holiday House, 1991. 



Anne Moorman-Smith: teaches at Aldert Root Classical Studies Magnet School (K-5) 
in Wake County. She holds a Bachelor of Music degree in Vocal Performance from 
Louisiana State University and a Masters in Music Education from Texas Woman's 
University. Anne also directs the choir at Community United Church of Christ in Raleigh 
and sings with the Raleigh Oratorio Society Chamber Choir. She is married to Monty 
Smith and is the proud mother of Erin (who will be a freshman music education major at 
UNC-G starting this fall) and Matt (who is a junior at Enloe High School). 

Ruth Pardue: teaches at Oak Grove Year-Round Elementary School (K-5) in Wake 
County where she "job shares" with two other music specialists. She holds a Bachelor of 
Music degree in Organ Performance from Meredith College and a Master of Music 
Education degree in Organ Pedagogy from North Texas State University. Receiving her 
teaching certificate from NC Central University, she holds Level III Kodaly Certification 
and Level I Orff Certification. In her spare time, she enjoys scrapbooking and playing 
with her new Havenese puppy. Beau. 



10 



Rhythm Score for Mozart's Overture to The Magic Flute 
Allegro J = 116 



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12 



TCHAIKOVSKY'S SECOND SYMPHONY, MOVEMENT IV 

PIOTR ILYITCH TCHAIKOVSKY, THE COMPOSER 

(1840-1893) 

Piotr Ilyitch Tchaikovsky was born May 7, 1 840 in Votkinsk, Russia and was the second 
of six children. His father was a mining inspector in Ural Mountains. Tchaikovsky was 
deemed a very sensitive child. He had a French governess and a music teacher who 
noticed at an early age that Tchaikovsky showed a strong inclination for music. At age 
six, he was allowed to begin piano lessons. Often after playing the piano he was too 
excited to even sleep. At the age of 8, Piotr was sent to boarding school which was a 
miserable experience. He became sick with the measles, was sent home and he never 
went back. When he was 1 years of age his family moved to St. Petersburg, and he was 
sent to a school of law a few years later. In 1854, when Peter was fourteen years of age, 
his mother died of cholera. Her death was a tremendous loss that he would carry with 
him all his life. He graduated from the school of law in 1859 at age 19, and became a 
government clerk. During this stay of employment, he continued to study music. 



When he was 2 1 , he was accepted into a famous musical institution, the St. Petersburg 
Conservatory. Peter learned more about music and was able to attend many opera 
performances. After seeing Don Giovanni, he was so overwhelmed by it, that he thought 
Mozart to be the greatest composer of all times. In 1862 Tchaikovsky made the decision 
that music would be his career and he courageously quit his job as a government clerk. 
At St. Petersburg Conservatory, he studied harmony, counterpoint, composition, and was 
also was able to teach, making money to help pay his way through school. He graduated 
in 1865, winning a silver medal for his Cantata to Schiller's Hymn To Joy. In 1866 he 
became professor of harmony at the Moscow Conservatory under the directorship of 
Nikolay Rubinstein. He taught there for twelve years and made enough money to support 
his occupation so he began to compose with great application. Many characteristics 
were portrayed in his music at that time: whimsical and light, sad and moody, fierce and 
dynamic. Peter was influenced by folk music and many of his compositions contain folk 
melodies of his native country. In 1866 Tchaikovsky began his First Symphony, entitled 
"Winter Dreams." Composing this symphony somehow affected him negatively as he 
began experiencing signs of nervous disorders: colitis, hypochondria, numbness in his 
hands and feet, and even hallucinations. 



Tchaikovsky soon realized his most successful compositions were programmatic. Much 
of his best work was composed for theater, as the stage was where Tchaikovsky could 
express his emotions, through his characters. In 1 869 he composed his overture-fantasy 
Romeo and Juliet, which was revised many times before the final version was complete 
in 1879. Romeo and Juliet is one of Tchaikovsky's most successful works. 



In 1868 an opera group visited St. Petersburg Conservatory. Desiree Artot, a Belgian 
soprano, became interested in Tchaikovsky. He thought of asking her to marry him and 



13 



even consulted his father. But this proved to be just a case of infatuation, and Artot ended 
up marrying a Spanish singer named Padilla. Because of the experience with Artot, 
Tchaikovsky believed human attachment was inconsistent. Throughout his creative 
career, he never allowed his psychological turmoil to interfere with his work. 



Besides teaching and composing, he contributed music criticism to Moscow newspapers 
for several years. He also traveled abroad. His closest friends were members of his own 
family, particularly his brother Modest (his future biographer), and his sister Alexandra 
Davidov. Tchaikowsky spent most of his summers at Alexandra's estate in Kamenka. 
While visiting Kamenka, he corresponded with his sister and brother frequently. This 
correspondence proved to be a positive influence on his character and his life. He had 
other intimate friends, the most extraordinary, Nadezhda von Meek, a wealthy widow 
whom he never met except briefly in passing, but who played an important role in his 
life. She learned of Tchaikovsky's financial difficulties and commissioned him to write 
several compositions for large fees. For more than 13 years they corresponded in great 
length and detail, even while living in the same city. At one time Madame von Meek 
suggested that she would not mind a personal meeting, but Tchaikovsky declined. He 
thought of her as a guardian angel and felt they should not meet in person. Their 
correspondence remained within the boundaries of art, personal philosophy, and reporting 
daily events, leaving his personal problems out of the discussions. 



Even though he was succeeding as a musician, Tchaikovsky was a very lonely and 
unhappy man and found his only happiness in his work. As a result, he was almost a 
compulsive composer and set apart time regularly every day to compose. His work was 
not enough to fill the void in his life and he began to long for a home and a family. 
Tchaikovsky was then working on his famous opera, Eugene Onegin, when he met 
conservatory student Antonina Milyukova. She had threatened to commit suicide if he 
did not marry her. 



On July 18, 1 877, Tchaikovsky married Antonina Milyukova against his better 
judgement, as in his heart he truly did not love her. Tchaikovsky was homosexual, which 
was not a secret but not socially accepted at the time. He thought that by marrying he 
could prevent any further speculation. The result was his marriage was a sham and he 
felt trapped. He left his wife, very disappointed with himself. He tried to commit suicide 
by walking into the Moskva River, hoping to catch pneumonia, but the attempt was 
unsuccessful. Antonina tortured him for the rest of his life, refusing to divorce him, 
threatening to expose him or move in with him, and demanding money. He then sought 
the advice of another brother, Anatol a lawyer, who arranged a separation for 
Tchaikovsky's wife. They were never legally divorced, but eventually she went mad and 
died in 1917 in an insane asylum. 



Tchaikovsky wrote to Madame von Meek revealing his hopelessness and failed marriage. 
She once again offered financial assistance and he accepted with enthusiasm. He spent 



14 



several months traveling during 1 877-78 in Paris, Italy, Switzerland and Vienna. During 
these months he completed one of his greatest works, the Fourth Symphony, dedicated to 
Madame von Meek. In 1 879, he completed his most successful opera, Eugene Onegin. 
It was first performed at the Imperial Opera in St. Petersburg 5 years later and gradually 
gained success. 



Tchaikovsky was constantly overwhelmed by morbid depression, but every new 
composition supported his destiny as a great composer. Many of his works were 
criticized, but his Fifth Symphony was successful from the very beginning. In early 
1 890, he wrote his second successful opera, The Queen of Spades. Swan Lake and The 
Sleeping Beauty, two of his ballets, became famous on Russian stages. In the midst of his 
success, Tchaikovsky suffered tremendous psychological trauma when Madame von 
Meek notified him that she would be discontinuing his financial assistance. After sharing 
this news with him, she abruptly terminated their correspondence, which had finally 
added up to 1 1 00 letters. Even though Tchaikovsky could now provide for himself 
financially, it still hurt him by the way she had broken off their relationship. However he 
did not let this affect his work, and in 1891 took his first trip to America. He received 
honors as a celebrated composer, and led four concerts of his works in New York and one 
each in Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Tchaikovsky then returned to St. Petersburg. In 
1 892 Tchaikovsky toured Russia, Warsaw, and Germany giving concerts. In the midst of 
the concert tours, he purchased a house not far from Moscow where he wrote his last 
symphony, the Pathetique. Once again, not satisfied with the outcome, he discarded his 
original sketch. The last symphony was dedicated to his nephew, Vladimir Davidov. 
The Pathetique was a final testament of Tchaikovsky's life and his philosophy of 
fatalism. He was in good spirits when he went to St. Petersburg to conduct the premier of 
the Pathetique on October 28 th , 1893, where it had moderate success. 

A cholera epidemic was rampant in St. Petersburg and everyone was warned not to drink 
unboiled water. On November 2, 1893, he had eaten macaroni, white wine and soda 
water, then retired for the evening. The next day he ate very little lunch. At the end of 
that meal, he drank a glass of tap water in the adjoining room. Modest his brother, was 
angry at what Piotr had done. His response to his brother's concern was that everyone 
couldn't go tiptoeing about in fear of death forever. Against all warnings not to drink the 
water, Tchaikovsky showed symptoms of cholera soon after and nothing could be done to 
save him. Murmuring Madame von Meck's name, as he lay delirious on his deathbed, he 
died at three o'clock on the morning of Monday, November 6, 1893 in St. Petersburg. 
His body was laid in state in his brother's bedroom before he was taken to Kazan 
Cathedral and then to Alexander Nevsky Cemetery. Legend has it that all of the mourners 
who passed by his body and touched it, not one contracted the fatal and highly contagious 
disease. To this day, there is speculation that his death was a suicide, a result of imminent 
disclosure of his sexual preference and the impending scandal. 

In the end, Tchaikovsky was never rich since he was very careless with his money. 
Scholars estimate that he gave away about half of the money that ever came into his 
hands. It could be that maybe he thought he had to buy peoples' affection. He managed 



15 



to save enough to afford a house in the countryside he loved, between Moscow and St. 
Petersburg. After the composer's death, his faithful valet, Alexis, inherited his furniture, 
bought the house and turned it into a museum to honor Tchaikovsky. Camille Saint- 
Saens thought Tchaikovsky was the kindest and gentlest of men. As a composer, 
Tchaikovsky stands alone and apart from the "Mighty Five," a militant national 
movement. Frequently he made use of Russian folksongs in his works as he did in his 
Symphony No. 2. His personal relationship with the St. Petersburg nationalists was 
friendly but not intimate. Tchaikovsky's music was sentimental, and his gift of melody 
guaranteed him lasting popularity among performers and audiences. Tchaikovsky became 
one of the most popular Russian composers under the Soviet regime. Throughout his life, 
music had a major impact. His musical compositions and contributions are still cherished 
and remembered today. 



THE MUSIC 

Symphony No. 2 in C minor, Op. 17, Movement IV (Finale) 

(1872-1879) 

It was in the summer of 1872 that Tchaikovsky visited his sister Alexandra in her 
Ukrainian village of Kamenka. He was refreshed not only by the time with his family, 
but also by the chance to return to the countryside and its people. One of his greatest joys 
that summer was hearing the peasants sing. Their music was apparently the spark that 
ignited the Symphony No. 2 in C minor. That fall he continued to work on the symphony 
in Moscow. It was Tchaikovsky's use of three native songs that led critic Nicholas 
Kashkin to refer to it as the "Little Russian" Symphony in 1896, not because of the 
characteristics of the piece, but of the Ukrainian region from which Tchaikovsky 
borrowed his themes. 



The "Little Russian" Symphony's finale, a set of variations on the Ukrainian melody 
"The Crane," was adapted from M. A. Momontova's collection of Children 's Songs on 
Russian and Ukrainian Melodies. It is based on two themes, one Tchaikovsky's own, 
and the other heard at Kamenka. The second half of "The Crane" as set out in the 
Collection, differs from the version Tchaikovsky composed in the Symphony No. 2 in 
C minor. The discrepancy is due to the butler at Kamenka, who was evidently upset by 
what he thought was an incorrect delivery of the tune. The butler then made a 
contribution suggesting the correct tune, which Tchaikovsky cheerfully acknowledged. 

The instrumentation for the symphony consists of 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 
2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, cymbals, bass drum, 
tam-tam(gong), and strings. Symphony No. 2 in C minor consists almost entirely of 
variations on themes and melodies from popular folk songs. The grandiose introduction 
presents the basic shape of the short "Crane" melody before the strings begin the 
variations. A lyrical melody "The Crane", played first by the violins and repeated by the 



16 



flutes, is introduced as a foil. The contrasting theme presents a melody incorporating 
syncopations. The development section combines the two themes, a wide-stepping bass, 
and remote modulations. In the symphony, Tchaikovsky repeats the song no less than 
eight times. The recapitulation returns as expected to "The Crane," repeating some old 
variations, devising new ones, and revealing a wider tonal range than in the exposition 
before ending firmly in E major. The recapitulation winds down to a dramatic stroke of 
the tam-tam in preparation for the coda. The composition gathers momentum as it 
proceeds, becoming a swirling, fiery Cossack, complete with displays of rhythmic 
energy. Although he enlarges the coda, he does not alter the theme. Overall, he obtains 
variety by constant changes of orchestral color. 

Symphony No. 2 in C minor, was Tchaikovsky's joyful response to the reunion of the life 
of the home, leisurely bustle of the village, and the calm and grandeur of the country 
scene while he visited Kamenka. He dedicated the work to the Moscow branch of the 
Russian Musical Society, which quickly scheduled its performance for January 24, 1873. 
The death of the Society's patroness Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, forced its 
postponement until February 7. After the first performance, the entire company was 
overwhelmed with enthusiasm for Tchaikovsky and his composition. According to 
critics, it was a symphony that avoided large-scale engagement with the problems of the 
form, and for that reason, among others, had certain weaknesses of construction. Due to 
all the negative criticism Tchaikovsky revised the symphony in 1879-80, completely 
rewriting the first movement. The new version was first performed on February 2, 1881, 
by the St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Musical Society, conducted by Karl Sike. 
While many critics prefer the original movement, Tchaikovsky thought his revision a 
great improvement. Regardless of Tchaikovsky's critics then and now, his music brings 
us great joy and will continue to do so for ages to come. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bonkrude, Sally Ann. Composers From Our Past: Activity Fun Pak. Roseville, MN: 
D. C. alFine, 1988. 

Brown, David. Tchaikovsky: The Early Years 1840-1874. Vo. 1 New York: 
W. W. Norton & Company, 1978. 

Brownell, David. Great Composers: Schumann to Stravinsky. San Francisco: 
Bellerophon Books, 1977. 

Parkhurst, Jackson. The North Carolina Symphony Teacher 's Handbook 1994-1995. 
Raleigh, North Carolina: Symphony Society, Inc., 1994. 



17 



Poznansky. Alexander. Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man. New York. 
Schirmer Books. 1 99 1 . 

Sadie. Stanley. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London, England: 
MacMillan Publishers, Ltd., 1980. 

Warrack, John. Tchaikovsky. New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1973. 



DISCOGRAPHY 

Bernstein, Leonard and the New York Philharmonic. Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 1 
"Winter Dreams" Symphony No. 2 "Little Russian. " New York: Sony Classical: 1992. 

Maazel, Lorin and the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 2 
"Little Russian" Rimsky-Korsakov Symphony No. 2 "Antar." Cleveland, Ohio: 
Telarc International Corporation: 1986. 



INTERNET RESOURCES 

Re: Tchaikovsky: Program notes from the Long Beach, CA. Symphony Orchestra: 
http://www.lbso.org/notes22600.html 

Re: Tchaikovsky: Concise and comprehensive calendars of Tchaikovsky's life: 

httpiAwww, geocities.com/Vienna/5648 



CALL CHART #l-SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN C MINOR-FINALE 

Time Description Measures 

0:00 Introduction 

Moderato Assai, 2/4, ff 1-24 

0:37 Exposition 

Violins introduce theme,/? 25-40 

Allegro Vivo 

0:48 Woodwinds enter, violins (theme) 41-56 

0:59 Theme in woodwinds, strings 57-64 

pizzicato 



Call Chart #1 Continued 
Time Description Measures 

1:06 Oboe(Variation), F-Horn Drone 65-72 

1:11 Theme in strings, /?-cresc, 73-80 

F-Horn Drone continued 

1:17 Woodwinds join in theme, 81-88 

mf- cresc., F-Horn Drone contin. 

1:22 Full Orchestra,/, theme 89-96 

1 :28 Woodwinds & Strings, mf 97- 1 03 

Theme 

1:33 Ascending measure to theme in 1 04- 1 1 2 

flute and bassoon, pizzicato strings 

1 :39 Woodwinds and Strings 113-125 

1:48 m. 125, full orchestral,^ 125-133 

strings build 7 Vi measures to 
m. 133 

1:53 Brass & Strings (theme/var.) 133-140 

1:58 mf-cresc. -ff, note duration extended 141-176 

to half note in woodwinds & Brass, 
adds on full orchestra as the cresc. 
Continues "Jaws" 

2:24 Ascending pattern in strings 177-178 

2:25 Full orchestra theme, ff 179-202 

2:42 Theme/Var. in strings, p 203-218 

2:52 VI,. Via., Theme/Vari., mf 219-235 

ascending in other woodwind & 
strings. 

3:05 ob., cl., bsn., vl., via, theme & vari. 236-243 

"Jaws"-/ 



19 



Call Chart #1 Continued 

Time Description Measures 

3:10 /descending pattern to p 244-253 

3:17 Variation in strings, p 254-26 1 

3:23 Woodwinds added, rhythm 262-269 

variation, p, strings-w/" 

3:28 ff, brass alternate with woodwinds 270-278 

and strings, variation 

3:34 full orchestra, ascending strings, 279-289 

except bsn,. Tuba, cb. descending 

3:42 VI,. Via. Vc. ascending 290-293 

3:45 full orchestra w/rhythmic 294-313 

variation,^ 

3:59 Development Begins 

Theme heard in woodwinds & N brass, 314-325 
Half-notes descending 

4:08 oboe and clarinet-theme-/? 326-341 

horn, tr., vc, & cb. (half notes) 

4: 1 8 Flute & vln. Doubled 342-357 

(graceful/sassy) 
piccolo & vl. Doubled (m.350-357) 

4:24 VI. & Via. Alternate with clarinet 358-373 

4:40 Flute & via. Double-/? 374-381 

4:46 piccolo & viola, p-cresc. 382-389 

4:51 f-cresc, brass-descending 390-397 

half-note intervals 

4:57 strings & woodwinds-theme 398-405 

5:02 woodwinds & brass 406-413 

5:07 strings & woodwinds-theme 414-421 



20 



Call Chart #1 Continued 

Time Description Measures 

5:12 full orchestra-#-"holly wood" sound 422-429 

5:17 woodwinds & strings (theme/var.) 430-453 

Brass & percussion (half/quarter) 

5:32 crash cymbals, woodwinds & 454-513 

strings ascending, brass ascending 
to full orchestra, ff-f-mf 

6:09 Recapitulation 

Theme in strings-p-w/ 514-541 

6:38 Woodwinds-rhythmic variation 542-551 

w/strings, descending to theme 

6:44 Theme in strings, p 552-559 

6:49 Woodwinds added, p-cresc. 560-567 

6:54 Brass alternate with strings 568-583 

and woodwinds, j#" ascending pattern 
with descending Tuba 

7:05 Full orchestra,^ four strong beats 584-587 

7:08 Strings ascending, crash cymbals-j^ 588-599 

Brass & woodwinds-Theme 

7:15 Piccolo & strings- mf-cresc, poco 600-640 

a poco, woodwinds and percussion 
added, f-cresc. poco apoco,fff, crash 
cymbals-four strong beats(x2), descending 
half note intervals to m.638 (tam-tam/7:41) 

7:46 Coda 

Presto-/?, rapid movement 641-680 

with repeated rhythm and 
melodies-ascending, slightly 
staccato 

8:02 ff-sempre, full orchestra with 681-772 

ascending patterns and theme 
heard throughout 



21 



Call Chart #1 Continued 

Description Measures 

Strings ascending, with half-note 773-806 

ascending pattern to full orchestral 

sound 

8:45 Quarter notes in Piccolo & Strings 807-823 

Full Orchestra-Strong! 

8:50-8:58 Full Orchestra-Quarter Notes 824-836 



CALL CHART #2-SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN C MINOR-FINALE 

Follow Listening Map 

0:00 Sassy, proud crane has landed and claimed his territory. Smaller birds 

bow down to him as he processes through the field. 
0:35 Crane stomps foot and other birds begin to chatter and fly around, causing 

a whirlwind. 
1 :06 Women birds are worried. 

1:11 Men birds answer, "We'll take care of you, never fear!" We'll get rid of 

him if it's the last thing we'll do!" 
1 :28 Children begin to chatter and are very worried. They follow their moms 

around. 
1 :48 All the birds begin to march toward the crane in a furry! 

1 :59 The farmer, furious, has found out the crane is in his field. He gets his 

frying pan and a hammer. He walks toward the field to get the crane. 

(Jaws) 
2:11 The farmer tries to scare him off and bangs the hammer on the frying pan. 

2:18 The farmer stomps his feet on the ground in anger, turns around in a 

whirlwind of dismay. 
2:31 The farmer hits the frying pan again and again! 

2:33 Farmer stomps feet again, and his face is very red! 

2:42 The crane is not moved by the attention! He begins to eat grain again 

from the field. Very sassy and proud, looks back every once in a while. 
3:05 Smaller birds begin to bother the crane around the field. 

3:17 Farmer comes back, stomping faster through the field with his hammer 

and frying pan in hand. 
3:41 He shakes his fist at the crane four times. 

3:43 Everyone is chasing each other around the field. 

3:51 The farmer shakes his fist four times. 

3:53 The crane dances his territorial dance and then stands still. 

3:56 Farmer shakes his fist four times. 



22 



Call Chart #2 Continued 

3:59 The crane looks side to side, holding his head up higher than its ever been. 

4:07 Children birds begin to chatter and scared of what the owner will do. They 

go and hide. 
4: 1 8 Crane begins to eat once more, doing a flirty dance, eating the grain. 

4:30 All birds begin to discuss what will happen amongst themselves. 

4:40 Crane is still dancing and eating. 

4:51 While the crane is eating, the farmer comes back! Very chaotic. 

5:12 Crane kicks his stilt legs up high, hat in hand! "No one can get rid of me!" 

5:17 The farmer is so mad he hits the frying pan with his hammer. The crane 

gets angry and begins to fly around the farmers head. 
5:32 The farmer stomps his feet and hits the frying pan eight times and more, 

scaring off the crane. 
5:42 Looks like it may happen! 

5:47 Birds are so happy. Everyone is beginning to do a victory dance. 

6:01 Crane begins to ascend higher and higher, taking off in flight! 

6:06 (Cymbal Crash) "YES!, it's over !Oh,no! Look! 

6:09 The crane flies graciously overhead, circling in once again for a landing, 

smiling with glee! 
6:32 Farmer and birds begin to see it all over again! "Oh no, we've had it! 

We're not taking it any more!" 
6:37 Oh no! Here he comes again! Children birds are in dismay. 

6:44 Farmer gets his frying pan and hammer for the last time! He knows he'll 

never see the crane again! 
7:05 The farmer shakes his fist four times! 

7:08 Crane tries to get away as farmer gets him with his hammer. The crane 

runs away! 
7:15 All birds join in to capture the crane! 

7:29 Farmer wrestles with the crane, using the hammer to get him in the bag. 

The crane struggles! 
7:41 It's finished! (Gong) 

7:46 Birds being to laugh at the crane, flying around happily. 

8:02 Farmer begins to rejoice and spin around in the field with the crane tied up 

in his bag. He begins hitting his hammer on the frying pan. 
8:34 Birds join in! 

8:53 Left arm up with his hammer in his hand! 

8:54 Right hand across chest with the frying pan! 

8:55 Farmer bows and drops to the ground in utter exhaustion! The end. 



Activity One: Language Arts 

Students will make a flow chart of their interpretation of the music in the Finale of 
Symphony No. 2 in C minor. Have students research and read about cranes. Write a 
short story based on their interpretation of what may be happening in the song. 



23 



Activity Two: Technology & Language Arts 

Have students type a word processing document pretending to be a famous composer 
who has just given a concert of an original work. Have them write about it in two 
paragraphs or more. As Tchaikovsky did to several of his compositions, have them edit 
and revise one or two things in their document to make it better. 

Beneficial Internet Addresses & Websites regarding Tchaikovsky: 

http://utopia.knoware.nI/users/ismeets/t/tchaikov.htm 
This website lists: 

♦ Symphonies 

♦ orchestral works 
♦> concertos 

♦ operas 

♦ ballets 

♦ chamber music 

♦ biography & other links 

http://www.odyssey.net/subscriber/sciro/pit.html 
This website lists: 

> biography 

> pictures 

> midi samples of Tchaikovsky's music 

> timelines 

http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/5648 

This website lists: 

■S pictures 

S biography 

•S history of Symphony No. 2 in C Minor 

■S GREAT for Concise and Comprehensive timelines! 

Activity Three: Mathematics and Technology 

Have students make a timeline of Tchaikovsky's life, include other great works as Swan 
Lake, Sleeping Beauty, The Nutcracker Suite and Symphony No. 2 in C Minor. 

**Use the above mentioned internet address to retrieve information for timeline or 
research your own. 



24 



Activity Four: Instrumental 

Teach students "The Crane" melody on barred instruments. Once students are familiar 
with the rhythm and the melody, add other instruments, varying the sound. 



o i , — h ^ 

"7^ m P m • 


-fe — 4 — • ■ ■ • — - 



4 

r 



s 
c 
p 



Activity Five: Rhythm 

Teach the rhythm of "The Crane." Once the rhythm is learned, divide into three groups 
and have students create new movements different from each other. 



Body Percussion 



2 



* 



H~± 



X-K 



^ 



n 

■X-X-#-X---X 




TAMBOURINE (other percussion instruments maybe used) 



Activity Six: Mathematical/Reading Comprehension & Technology 

Students will answer questions using a given timeline to identify facts about 
Tchaikovsky's life and works. Students may work independently or in pairs. Please use 
the internet address given or research your own Tchaikovsky website. 



How old was Tchaikovsky when he wrote Symphony No. 2 in C Minor? 

How many Symphonies did Tchaikovsky compose? 

How old would Tchaikovsky be if he were still alive? 

In what year did Tchaikovsky take his first concert tour in America? 

Where was Tchaikovsky born and in what year? 

How old was Tchaikovsky when he married Antonina Milyukova? 

What year did Tchaikovsky begin working for the Moscow Conservatory? 

How long did Tchaikovsky work for the Moscow Conservatory? 



25 



• In what years did Tchaikovsky compose Romeo and Juliet, The Nutcracker, Sleeping 
Beauty and Swan Lake? 

• How old was Tchaikovsky when he died? 

• What was his cause of death? 

You may ask other pertinent questions. 
Activity Seven: Language Arts 

Students will pretend to be Tchaikovsky for a day. Choose a specific date and write a 
letter to a close friend describing what is happening in Tchaikovsky's life on that day. 

Activity Eight: Social Studies 

Students will locate the general area of Kamenka and Votkinsk on a map or globe. 
Discuss what was happening in America during Tchaikovsky's lifetime, and what was 
happening in his life as well. 



K-- 



Activity Nine: Word Scramble 

Name: Date: 

Symphony and Tchaikovsky Word Scramble 

Unscramble the words below that come from the information we have 
learned about Tchaikovsky and the symphony orchestra. 

1. gnstnirs 6. msponyhp 

2. nprescsuio 7. iLtlte sisanRu 

3. dwodonisw 8. sarthcroe 

4. arsbs 9. vskiahyckTo 

5. rtondcuco 10. suofma mpocreso 

Word List 

orchestra woodwinds conductor symphony 

brass Tchaikovsky percussion Little Russian 

strings famous composer 



26 



Activity Ten: Tchaikovsky Crossword Puzzle, based on facts about Tchaikovsky 
and Symphony No. 2 in C Minor. After reading the statement, fill in the numbered 
blank. 





3 






























1 




¥• 






5 










' 
























a 






1 






















L 








T 




[ 








9 












3 










J [ 




















1 




/ 




**«. 


















- 










i. 







ACROSS 



DOWN 



2. Where did Tchaikovsky visit and was 
inspired to write Symphony #2? 

4. What is another name for Tchaikovsky's 
Symphony #2? 

6. What was the name of the folksong 

used for the theme of the fourth movement of 
his 2nd Symphony? 

8. Where did Tchaikovsky teach for 12 years? 



1. What was the name of movement IV? 

3. What was the cause of Tchaikovsky's death? 

5. Who wrote the Symphony #2 in C minor? 

7. What country was Tchaikovsky born in? 

9. What kind of songs did Tchaikovsky 
frequently use in his symphonies? 



27 



ip. p 

| F | 

f: 

! , [ ! 
■I | :: 

N = 



fa i 

| |K [A JM |e 



6 
T 



TCHAIKOVSKY/SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN C MINOR 
CROSSWORD PUZZLE 



L 



N |K JA 



IV |C H S 



R V A 



p- 

iiL 



28 



Activity Eleven: Tchaikovsky Word Search 

Objective: Students will become familiar with terminology and biographical material 
concerning Tchaikovsky and the "Little Russian" Symphony. Students will become 
familiar with vocabulary used in their material and be able to recognize words associated 
with this study. Students will find vocabulary words in a word search. 

STPETERSBURGRGYTPEOF 
WMOS COWCONS ERVATORYL 
LPULFNQHLKVNAI NI ARKU 
I J HYFVI OLADXVCYUMNGT 
TBGNOSKLOFI NALECSWQE 
THRTI OKEGHJ TENI RALCZ 
LS EOBODRCXENOBMORTP O 
EVNCYMBALSXMUSI CEOI P 
RI TLRBNMKI LRTNOPCWQR 
UMBXKAMENKAHVOMP DWZ K 
SBNCRWNEDTYJ AUPLDYPC 
SBGTRSI EOTESRI KUBNOE 
I BVXDEQLKOI TI TSEDOMM 
ALEXANDRAPNBTHDFEHI N 
NBVMKJ DRFXAYI EPJ GPLO 
ZUYVI OLI NBPVOMCXWMTV 
TUBAVCFDZXMPNESTEYOE 
EOUI KOLOCCI PSZWOCSOM 
BVYXMODERATOASSAI NBM 
VEAZTBCDQYKSVOKI AHCT 
NCS YMP HONYWELOVEYOUP 

Directions: Read the following story about Tchaikovsky. Find the underlined words in the word find 
puzzle and circle them. Words may be found forward, backward, diagonally, up or down. 

Born in Russia. Tchaikovsky worked hard to be a great composer. Music was very 
important to him. He studied music at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, and worked at the 
Moscow Conservatory for twelve years. Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 2 in C minor was 
nicknamed the " Little Russian ." He got the idea to write it while visiting the Ukrainian 
village of Kamenka. He heard some children singing a folksong " The Crane .'" He used 
part of the melody to create a theme and variations style of music for the Finale . Some of 
the instruments you will hear in the Finale are the Tuba , Flute , Viola , Clarinet . Trumpet , 
Timpani , Violin , Piccolo , Oboe , and the Trombone . The beginning tempo of the Finale 
is moderato assai , which means very moderate. His brother Modest and beloved friend 
Mme. von Meek were two of his closest confidants. ( N.C. Symphony! We Love You !) 



29 



SOLUTION TO TCHAIKOVSKY WORD SEARCH 



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30 




Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky 

Activity Twelve: Rhythm Recognition, Cognitive Thinking Skills 

Students will determine the mood of the music by holding up the Tchaikovsky puppet 
each time the mood changes. Students may also use the puppet to keep the steady beat 
throughout the listening process. Have students invent other ways to use the puppet 
while studying Tchaikovsky. (After coloring the Tchaikovsky puppet, back it with tag 
board or cardboard. Cover the puppet with clear contact paper. Cut out and place on a 
large popsicle stick.) 



31 



Activity Thirteen: Melody Recognition and Movement 

Students will recognize and learn the melody to the folksong "The Crane." (sing on "la" 
or you may choose to use the words written by Jackson Parkhurst) Once students are 
familiar, comfortable, and confident with singing the melody on "la," have students 
create movements to interpret the crane. Students may be divided into several groups. 
Have students assess one another's movements. 



The Crane 



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Ukrainian Folk Song 

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l.A crane flies in - to my field, steals my grain! A crane flies in - to my field, Hey! 

2. Oh, you vil - lain, I will clip both your wings If you fly in - to my field, Hey! 

3. Then you won't come an - y more, steal my grain, You won't fly in - to my field, Hey! 



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S^3 



Sas - sy crane, sas - sy crane, point-ed bill, point-ed bill, Legs like stilts, legs like stilts, 



(ri) J * J — -r- 



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clap 



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4. It will serve you right you naugh-ty crane, You won't fly in - to my field, Hey! 

Translated by Eleanora Magomedova and Zinoviy Bogachek. Words by Jackson Parkhurst and Suzanne Rousso. Arranged by Terry Mizesko. 



32 



Activity Fourteen: Art, Creativity, and Critical Thinking Skills 

Students will color the Tchaikovsky and crane pages. After coloring, cover with contact 
paper or laminate and cut into large or small sections (4 to 6, 6 to 8). You will have two 
puzzles in one students can put together. This is a good idea to do with other composers 
as well. You can keep these in a file for unit use at a later time. 



33 




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In addition to all material, the following children's books are good sources of 
informational learning: 

Peter Tchaikovsky Written and illustrated by Mike Venezia 

Children's Press, 1994 

From the series: Getting to Know the World's Greatest Composers 

Famous Children: Tchaikovsky Written by Ann Rachlin , illustrated 

by Susan Hellard 

Fun With Music Publishers, 1993 



Judy McCarson teaches K-5 general and choral music at Easley Elementary School in 
Durham, N.C. Ms. McCarson received her Bachelor Degrees from Campbell University 
in 1996 in Comprehensive Music and Music Education with a concentration in voice. 
She received her Masters of Music from UNCG in 1997. In addition to teaching, she 
conducts the 121 member Easley Elementary School Chorus. She sings with the Durham 
Chorale and is frequently featured as a soloist. She is a choir member of the Rose of 
Sharon Baptist Church in Durham, and serves as the Yates Baptist Association W. M. U. 
Chorister. Judy would like to thank those in her church and at her school who made this 
project possible. 



39 




SYMPHONIC METAMORPHOSIS 

on Themes of Carl Maria von Weber 

Movement I Allegro and IV Marsch ■ 
Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) 



Classroom Activities by 
Amy Cheyne and Carolyn Lemmond 



Born: November 16, 1895 in Hanau, Germany 
Died: December 28, 1963 in Mainz, West Germany 



Composer 



Accomplished Violinist 




Accomplished Violist 



Hindemith: The Performer 



Very early in his life Hindemith learned to play several different instruments. He 
devoted the earlier part of his career to performance. By age eleven, he had played the 
violin in cafes, theaters, and movie houses. In 1915 at age 20, he became the 
concertmaster in the Frankfurt Opera House in Frankfurt, Germany. Between 1915 and 
1923 he became extremely proficient on the viola. He joined with Licco Amar in 
organizing the Amar String Quartet, and toured as violist with them until 1929. 

As he toured Europe with the Amar Quartet, he was never without his instruments and 
writing materials. On noisy, clattering trains he composed string quartets, sonatas for 
violin, piano, cello, and for various string and woodwind combinations. The Amar 
Quartet played many of Hindemith's original works. Some critics complained that the 
rhythm of this music sounded too much like the turning wheels of a train, but there was 
no doubt in anyone's mind that he was a talent to watch. 



Reading Activity 1: 

1 . What was the first instrument Hindemith learned to play? 

2. At age 20, what position did Hindemith acquire at the Frankfurt Opera House? 

3 . What was the second instrument Hindemith mastered? 

4. Which famous string quartet was he a member and helped organize, which toured 
Europe? 




Answers: 1) violin 2) concertmaster 3) viola 4) Amar String Quartet 



40 



'Hindemith: The Teacher 



Hindemith was in great demand as a teacher. Between 1927-1935 he taught a master 
class in composition at the Berlin School of Music. In 1935 the Turkish government 
asked him to organize all branches of music study and research of occidental models. He 
also taught at the Ankara conservatory. In 1 940 he was at the Berkshire Music Center 
and was appointed to the faculty at Yale University. In 1947 he was named Battel 
Professor of the Theory of Music at Yale, and finally in 1953 he taught at the University 
of Zurich, Switzerland. His students adored him, not only because of his stimulating 
freedom of his ideas, but because of his wit which survived two world wars and the 
accompanying hard knocks. One evening he was conducting the Yale student orchestra 
in the open courtyard of the cloisters in New York. It was a program of ancient music, 
and valuable ancient instruments had been borrowed from the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art. The occasion was a gala event, and the courtyard was packed with people in 
beautiful summer evening clothes. The concert had hardly started when a growl of 
thunder crashed the sky. The heavens opened and a deluge came down upon the event. 
Hindemith faced the audience, smiled and said, "For the sake of the instruments, we will 
go inside." The dripping audience adjourned to an indoor auditorium, which was much 
too small, but soaking wet and uncomfortable they all stayed. It proved to be a magical 
performance. 



Reading Activity 2: 

1 . Hindemith taught in which school of music between 1927 and 1935? 




2. Hindemith became Battel Professor of what famous American university in 1947? 

3. What happened during the "Ancient Music" concert at Yale University involving 
some very valuable instruments from the Metropolitan Museum of Art? 




Answers: 1) Berlin School of Music 2) Yale 3) very heavy thunderstorm 



41 



Hindemith: The Political Activitst 

Hindemith* s conflict with the ideology of the National Socialist Government in Germany 
became extremely sharp. He was attacked by propaganda agencies as a cultural 
Bolshevik, and was criticized for his continued association with Jewish musicians. This 
open conflict came to a climax when the National Socialist Government of Germany, 
under Hitler's rule, banned Hindemith's opera Mathis der Maler (Mathais the Painter). 
Hindemith had spent six months in solitary contemplation of the life of this interesting 
medieval character. Hitler announced it was degenerate and unfit for Nazi ears. At this 
point Hindemith decided to leave Germany. He wanted to live in a democracy. 
Hindemith was 44 years old when he arrived in New York, and in 1 946 he became an 
American citizen. He did return to Germany in 1949, his first time back since the war. 
He conducted the Berlin Philharmonic in a program of his works on February 14, 1949. 




Reading Activity 3: 

1 . Who was the head of the National Socialist Government in Germany when Hindemith 
live there? 

2. What opera did Hitler ban from being performed in Germany? 

3. Where did Hindemith move to escape the German government? 

4. What year did Hindemith become an American citizen? 



Answers: 1) Hitler 2) Mathis der Maler 



3) New York City 4) 1946 



42 




Hindemith: The Composer 



Hindemith's early music reflects rebellious opposition to all tradition. Hindemith has 
written works in all genres and for all instrumental combinations including a series of 
sonatas for each orchestral instrument with piano. Hindemith's style may be described as 
a combination of Modern, Romantic, Classical, and Archaic principles. Only by 
Hindemith's superlative mastery of technique could he accomplish this. He was also 
famous fordeclaring "..a composer should write today only if he knows for what purpose 
his is writing. The days of composing for the sake of composing are over. The demand 
for music is so great that composer and consumer ought most emphatically to come to an 
understanding." He tried to be practical himself. He studied people's musical needs, 
accepted commissions whatever they were, wrote music of all kinds for all kinds of 
people. He coined the term "Gebrauchsmusik" (utility music) to describe the practical 
compositions he supplied in great number; short piano pieces for elementary, 
intermediate and advanced students, scores for films and radio, pieces for a brass band, 
for marionettes, for children, amateurs, and professionals, for a mechanical organ, a 
mechanical piano or harmonica or any other odd instrument - his range was wide. 



The writing of "Gebrauchsmusik" was only one use of his talent. There was also a long 
list of chamber music works, several of them were presented at the annual festivals of the 
International Society for Contemporary Music. 



Hindemith's most outstanding compositions: 



** 




Nobilissima Visione - ballet based on the life of St. Francis of Assisi 

Concerto for Orchestra 

Mathis der Maler - opera 

Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes by Weber 

Der Schwanendreher (The Swan-Drover) concerto for viola 

Kammermusik No. 5 - viola concerto 

Ludis Tonalis - fugue for piano 



Besides many compositions in various styles, Hindemith wrote three illuminating 
textbooks: 

1) Groundwork of Musical Composition 

2) The Craft of Musical Composition 

3) Traditional Harmony 




Reading Activity 4: 

1 . What 4 musical styles did Hindemith combine to create his own style? 

2. What did the term "Gebrauchsmusik" mean? 

3. What was Hindemith's most famous ballet based on the life of St. Francis of Assisi? 

4. Hindemith's Symphonic Metamorphosis was based on themes by what composer? 

Answers: 1) Modern, Romantic, Classical, and Archaic 

2) utility music 3) Nobilissima Visione 4) Carl Maria von Weber 



43 




closer look at Symphonic Metamorphosis 



Symphonic Metamorphosis on Themes of Carl Maria von Weber was completed in 1943. 
The first performance of the piece was January 20, 1 944, in New York. It was scored for 
2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 
contrabassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, tympani, percussion, and strings. 



For some years Hindemith had maintained a working relationship with the ballet 
impresario Leonide Massine. In the early 1940's they began discussing the possibility of 
producing a ballet based on the music of Carl Maria von Weber. However, Hindemith 
discovered Massine intended to use costumes and sets designed by Salvador Dali. 
Hindemith detested Dali's work and Massine wasn't pleased with Hindemith's work, so a 
falling-out ensued. The ballet project was dropped but the music was not lost. Three 
years later Hindemith reworked the music into the Symphonic Metamorphosis which has 
become one of his most popular pieces. 

The "themes" mentioned in the title are from Weber's Piano Duet, Opus 60 #4 (first 
movement) and the Piano Duets, Opus 60 #2 and 60 #7 (final movement). One critic 
wrote, "As for what Mr. Hindemith has done with the Weber themes, he must take full 
responsibility. Because he used some of Weber's themes that were certainly not Weber's 
best, he felt free to do with them as he pleased." 




PAUL 



HINDEMITH 




TIME TABLE OF HINDEMITH'S LIFE 




1 895 Born in Hanau, Germany 
1915 Became a concertmaster of the Frankfurt Opera. 
1927 Taught a master class at the Berlin School for Music 
1 929 Toured as a violinist with the Amar String quartet. 

1934 Works banned in Germany because of his opposition to the 
National Socialist Government. 

1935 Hindemith left Germany and went to New York. 

1937 His first American appearance at Coolidge Festival in 

Washington playing his unaccompanied viola sonata. 

1938 Wrote famous opera Mathis der Maler. 

1940 Settled at Yale University as head of the Music Department. 
1 944 Composed Symphonic Metamorphosis in New York. 
1 946 Became an American Citizen. 

1949 Revisited Germany for the first time since the war to conduct the Berlin 
Philharmonic 

1953 Settled in Switzerland and taught at the University of Zurich. 

1 954 Received the annual "Sibelius Award" for great men of music and 

science by a Finnish ship owner. 
1 963 Died suddenly after a concert in Mainz, West Germany. 



MATH ACTIVITY. . .use the time line to answer the following questions. 

1 . How old was Hindemith when he toured with the Amar String quartet? 

2. How many years were there between the time he wrote Mathis der Maler 
and the Symphonic Metamorphosis? 

3. How many years after he arrived in New York City did he become a U.S. 
Citizen? 

4. How old was Hindemith when he died: 

5. How old was Hindemith when he received the "Sibelius Award"? 



45 



METAMORPHOSIS MATCH GAME 



Directions: 




Cut out the FACTS and STATEMENTS. Glue or tape to a card. 

Put the FACTS (from the left column) on one card and the 

STATEMENTS (from the right column) on another. 

Give half the class FACT cards and the rest the STATEMENT cards. 

Students will move quietly around the room trying to find their "partner" 

(the person who matches what is on their card). 



PAUL HINDEMITH 


COMPOSER OF 
SYMPHONIC METAMORPHOSIS 


VIOLA 


INSTRUMENT HINDEMITH 
PLAYED IN AMAR QUARTET 


YALE 


AMERICAN UNIVERSITY WHERE 
HINDEMITH WAS BATTEL PROFESSOR 


ALLEGRO 


1 st MOVEMENT OF SYMPHONIC 
METAMORPHOSIS 




MARSCH 


4 th MOVEMENT OF SYMPHONIC 
METAMORPHOSIS 


HANAU, GERMANY 


BIRTHPLACE OF HINDEMITH 









MATHIS DER MAHLER 



OPERA BANNED IN GERMANY 



46 



NATIONAL SOCIALIST 

GOVERNMENT 
or THE NAZI PARTY 


POLITICAL PARTY HINDEMITH 
OPPOSED 


HITLER 


HEAD OF THE NAZI PARTY 


ON A TRAIN 


WHERE DID HINDEMITH WRITE 
MOST OF HIS EARLY 
COMPOSITIONS? 


20 YEARS OLD 


HINDEMITH'S AGE WHEN 
HE BECAME CONCERTMASTER 
AT FRANKFURT. 


68 YEARS OLD 


HOW OLD WAS HINDEMITH 
WHEN HE DIED? 


VIOLIN 


1 st INSTRUMENT HINDEMITH 
LEARNED TO PLAY 


NOBILISSIMA VISIONE 


BALLET HINDEMITH WROTE 


MODERN, CLASSICAL, 
ROMANTIC, & ARCHAIC 


HINDEMITH COMBINED THESE 
4 MUSICAL STYLES 


UTILITY MUSIC 
(WRITING FOR A NEED) 


GEBRAUCHSMUSIK 

47 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Kaufman. Helen L. History's 100 Greatest Composers Grossett and Dunlap, New York, 
New York 1964. 

Baker. Biological Dictionary of Musicians. 

Ventura, Piero. Great Composers G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, NY, 1988. 

F.E. Compton Company Compton's Encyclopedia Chicago, Illinois 1981. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF INTERNET RESOURCES 

Re. Hindemith by Geoff Kuenning 

www.cs.ucla.edu/geoff/prognotis/hindemith7weber metaborph.html 

Re. Hindemith, Paul www.hnh.comm/composer/hindemit.htm 

Re. Classical Net - Basic Repertoire List - Hindemith 

www.classical.net/music/comp. 1 st/hindemith.html 



Amy Cheyne received her B.A. in Music Education from Ouachita Baptist University in 
Arkadelphia, Arkansas. She presently teaches at Bellamy Elementary School in 
Wilmington, N.C. She also teaches private voice lessons and is very involved in her 
church music program at Port City Community Church where she sings solos and directs 
drama presentations. 



Carolyn Lemmond received her B.S. in Elementary Education from Radford College in 
Radford, Virginia. She received her M.Ed, from the University of North Carolina in 
Wilmington, N.C. She has taught 22 years in the elementary schools of North Carolina. 
Presently she teaches at Bellamy Elementary School in Wilmington where she has served 
for the last 5 years as Computer Resource Teacher and Technology Facilitator. 



48 



CALL CHART 

Follow time sequence of CD play 

I s Movement of Symphonic Metamorphosis 

Allegro (J =108) 

:00 -: 13 Short Introduction in strings, woodwinds, and brass. 
(ftomf) 

:03 -:13 Strings enter with THEME I. 

:14-:23 Repeat THEME I. 

:24 -:29 Transition in woodwinds and strings - slurred and smooth. 
(fto mf) 

:30 - :33 THEME II (a transitional theme) enters in flutes (mf). 

:34 - :38 THEME II melody passed to oboe (mf). 

:39 - :44 Melody passed to violins (/). 

:45 - :56 THEME III enters in woodwinds. The crescendo in the snare 
drums add to the excitement as the strings take over theme (/). 

(Notice chromatic ascending movement of accompaniment adds 
suspense and lead to THEME III continued in strings.) 

:57 - 1 :08 THEME III in strings transitioning to new theme. 

1:09-1:16 THEME IV is introduced by trumpets (/). 

1:17-1 :36 Transitional motif is carried out in woodwinds leading to repeat 

1 :37-2:09 Repeat of THEME IV. 

2: 10-2:27 THEME V introduced by oboe (mf) pizz. in accompaniment by 
strings (pp). 



49 



2:28-2:36 Melody of THEME V played on glockenspiel for intensity (pp). 

2:37-2:57 Oboe takes over melody and transitions back to THEME I. 
Interesting question/answer fragment with bassoon (m/). 

2:58-3:06 Variation of THEME I quietly carried out in cello and 
woodwinds. 

3:07-3:28 Intensity starts to build as well as volume by adding more 
instrumentation and use of crescendo in snare drum. 

3.29 - end All instruments used in ascending movement toward pending. 



50 





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CALL CHART 



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4 Movement of Symphonic Metamorphosis 

Marsch ( d = 80) 

:00 -: 1 3 Introduction on brass, a suspended motif 

:09 -:36 Theme I starts in woodwinds, supported by walking strings 

:37 -:39 Trumpets come in/ with " surprise" fanfare; it leads us to believe we are going 

on, but we repeat instead. 

:40 -1:12 Repeat of Theme I 

1:13-1:21 Transition moving to a slight variation of Theme I. Notice 1 : 1 5, the motif in the 
trumpets from the introduction 

1 :22 -1 :41 Variation of Theme I starting very strong with the strings, it then calms us and 
brings down the volume to introduce Theme II. 

1 :44 -1 :59 Theme II introduced by the French forms. It is a very interesting fluttering pattern 
(similar to a butterfly) in the upper woodwinds. 

2:00 -2:44 Thicker texture begins by adding all instruments and the use of a crescendo. The 
development of the theme continues in fast, exciting rhythm. 

2:45-2:55 Abrupt stop in the music, transitions with the use of a " chorale-like" slow 
movement. 

2:56 -3: 14 Return to Theme I with galloping pizz. movement in strings and melody in 
trombones. 

3: 1 5 -3:40 Transition starts as melody echoes back and forth between trombones and oboe. 

3:41 -3:46 Ascending transition in brass 

3 :47 -3 :49 Abrupt descending brass begins; dramatic movement toward " big ending." 

3:50-3:58 Very clear return of Theme II in brass; all instruments are playing 

3:59 -end Exciting, fast-paced, transition to ending with small excerpts of previous fanfare 
motif from the French horns in the introduction, interest is heightened by 
crescendo on percussion. 



54 




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Marsch 



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57 



Nlame: 

Ttle: SYMPHONIC METAMORPHOSIS 

Across 

1 . At age 20, Hindemith became the concert master of the opera house in this city. 

3. In 1 946, Hindemith became a citizen of this country. 

5. Received this award from Finnish shop owner. 

9. This opera was banned in Germany by Hitler. 

10. In 1 935, this government asked him to organize all branches of music study. 

11. In 1 935, Hindemiths first American appearance was at this festival in Washington. 
1 3. Hindemith coined this word meaning "utility music". 

Down 

2. Wrote this ballet based on the life of St. Francis of Assisi. 

4. Hindemith was named Battel Prosfessor at this American university in 1947. 

6. Early works had strong, driving rhythm because they were written while riding on a . 

7. "Symphonic Metamorphosis" was written as a , but too much conflict left it unfinished. 

8. "Symphonic Metamorphosis" was based on themes written by this man. 
1 2. Composer Hindemith's first name. 

1 4. Hindemith played viola with this famous quartet. 
1 5. Town where Hindemith was born. 



58 



Name: 



SYMPHONIC METAMORPHOSIS 




59 



Answer Key 



SYMPHONIC METAMORPHOSIS 




60 



PAUL HINDEMITH 



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S 


N 


R 


K 


G 


A 





CUB 


S E V 


P 


T 


N 





M 


M 


T 


I 


F 


V 


L 


K S R 


I M T 


A 


F 


P 


P 


X 


A 


M 


I 


L 


U 


X 


M I W 


S V N 


J 


M 


S 


I 


C 


A 


N 


H 


C 


J 


R 


K K T 


COT 





B 


A 


L 


L 


E 


T 


Y 


X 


Y 


C 


T P G 


S H C 


C 


Y 


A 


R 


C 


H 


A 


I 


C 


N 


A 


U T N 



SYMPHONIC 


..GERMANY 


_ PERFORMER 


_ OPERA 


CLASSICAL 


_ FRANKFURT 


_ METAMORPHOSIS 


_ HINDEMITH 


ZURICH 


_GEBRAUCHSMUSIK 


_ ARCHAIC 


_ STRINGS 


BALLET 


_ VIOLIN 


_ CONDUCTOR 


_ SONATA 


MODERN 


_ THUNDER 


___ VIOLA 


__ COMPOSER 


BERLIN 


_ ROMANTIC 







Try your own sketch of Hindemith 



\ 

\ 





61 



PAUL HINDEMITH 




SYMPHONIC 


_ GERMANY 


_ PERFORMER 


_ OPERA 


CLASSICAL 


_ FRANKFURT 


_ METAMORPHOSIS 


_ HINDEMITH 


ZURICH 


_GEBRAUCHSMUSIK 


_ ARCHAIC 


_ STRINGS 


BALLET 


_VIOLIN 


_ CONDUCTOR 


_ SONATA 


MODERN 


_ THUNDER 


_ VIOLA 


_ COMPOSER 


BERLIN 


_ ROMANTIC 







62